When the Roman lady went out of doors
she put on a third garment: the palla. The palla , which completed a woman's
formal dress, was identical with the Greek himation
and was draped in the
same way. It was
usually made of wool, in different weights.
In early times
this resembled the male toga, but at a later time both the
shape and the material of it were altered. It was very
voluminous, and might be either square or oblong. It had
sometimes the shape of a very wide paenula, and
sometimes it looked like two large plaids joined on the
shoulders with clasps and
fastened round the waist by a girdle.
The full dress of a Roman lady was
incomplete without a veil. In early days it was called the
flammeum; the later name of it was ricinium. It was
attached in various ways at the back of the head, and
hung down over the back and shoulders.
The paenula, or cloak, was donned by
women travelers as well
as men, for protection against the elements.
A veil of exquisite quality, called
palliolum by the Romans, was a favorite headdress. It
was arranged over the hair, held in place by bands or wreaths,
and fell to the shoulders. There are numerous references in
Roman literature to the theristrion
, which was a transparent mantle sometimes
taking the place of the veil.